Foreign policy and defense
Ghana has good relations with the major
donors in the west, but in recent years has also
approached China, which makes extensive investments in
infrastructure in the country. Ghana has acted as
mediator in several regional conflicts and the country's
army plays an active role in peacekeeping forces in
Africa and internationally.
Following an orientation towards the Socialist East
Bloc under Jerry Rawling's military rule in the 1980s,
Ghana's relationship with the West improved during the
1990s. The country's transition to democracy in 2000 and
the market liberal policies that followed it have
contributed to good relations with important trading
partners and donor countries such as the US and the UK,
where many Ghanaians also live in exile. In 2009, US
President Barack Obama made his first visit to
sub-Saharan Africa in Ghana.
Overview of business holidays and various national observances in Ghana for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024 and 2025.
Ghana plays an active role internationally and
especially regionally, where former President John
Kufuor has mediated in the conflicts in Liberia and
Ivory Coast. With Nigeria, Ghana has traditionally
strong ties, especially economic ones. Nigerian
companies are increasing their presence in Ghana, and
there has been friction at times over the large and
growing number of Nigerian guest workers.
With Burkina Faso in the north, Ghana has relatively
good relations. During a period in the 1980s, the
cooperation was very close, and the then military
leaders of the two countries planned to form a union.
However, the plans died with Burkina Faso's President
Thomas Sankara, who was assassinated in 1987.
Ghana's relationship with Togo in the east has often
been strained. Both sides previously accused the
counterpart of being a refuge for exile groups. However,
after the change of power in Ghana in 2000, relations
have been good.
The relationship with the Ivory Coast in the west,
with recurring civil and refugee flows, is a challenge
for Ghana. Relations improved after Ghanaian President
Mill's death in 2012. According to the Ivory Coast
government, Mill had supported the deposed Ivorian
President Gbagbo during the conflict in the Ivory Coast
in 2010–2011. Tensions still exist between the countries
as Ivory Coast accuses Ghana of hosting Gbagbo
A border dispute over an oil and gas-rich sea area has
been settled under friendly forms. After a number of
fruitless attempts to resolve the conflict themselves,
the countries referred the matter to the International
Maritime Court in 2014, which in September 2017 ruled in
favor of Ghana. Both countries said they respected the
Ghana's relations with the Gambia deteriorated
sharply in 2005 when it was revealed that the Gambian
security service had murdered 44 Ghanaian men, suspected
of being mercenaries with the mission of murdering the
country's president Yahya Jammeh. Reconciliation was
reached between the two countries after an investigation
by the UN and Ecowas ruled that the Gambian regime was
not involved in the deaths.
The military has previously been deeply involved in
the country's politics but is now under civilian
control. Its relations with the political leadership are
good. Ghana's army plays an active role in peacekeeping
forces both regionally and internationally, and is
usually among the ten largest countries in terms of
troop contributions to UN peacekeeping operations.
Ghanaian soldiers have been sent to the Ivory Coast,
Liberia, Sierra Leone, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, South
Sudan, Mali and the Middle East, among others. Under the
auspices of the regional cooperation organization Ecowa,
Ghana has sent troops to, for example, Ivory Coast,
Liberia and Sierra Leone. The size of the military is
estimated at 15,500 men (2014).
FACTS - DEFENSE
11 500 men (2017)
The air Force
2,000 men (2017)
2,000 men (2017)
Military expenditure's share of GDP
0.4 percent (2017)
Military spending's share of the state budget
1.7 percent (2017)
Maize harvest is lost
Northern Ghana is affected by the most severe floods in 30 years. The
important corn harvest in the poor northern provinces is lost.
Oil on the coast of Ghana
A greater amount of oil is found off the coast of Ghana. President John
Kufuor says the oil deposit will transform the country into an "African tiger".
Ghana celebrates 50 years of independence
Ghana celebrates the 50th anniversary of its liberation from colonial power