Foreign policy and defense
Mozambique gives priority to regional
relations, and the relationship with South Africa is
crucial for the country. The socialist Frelimo regime's
previous close contacts with the Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe ended with the collapse of communism in
the late 1980s. Nowadays, contacts with the western
world are good.
During the first years after the independence of the
colonial power Portugal in 1975, Mozambique's foreign
policy was characterized by close contacts with the
Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, although the country
was officially alliance free. Mozambique signed a
friendship and cooperation agreement with the Soviet
Union in 1977, while relations with the Western world,
especially the United States, deteriorated.
Overview of business holidays and various national observances in Mozambique for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024 and 2025.
Following the collapse of the communist eastern bloc
in the late 1980s, the communist Frelimo regime was
forced to implement a series of political and economic
reforms to regain the confidence of the western world.
In 1984, Mozambique became a member of the World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Relations
with Western aid donors have since been important (see
Economic overview), and Mozambique is often seen in the
outside world as a model for reconstruction after war
Mozambique has prioritized regional relations and was
the driving force in the formation of the regional
cooperation organization SADCC in 1980, now the Southern
African Development Community (SADC). The country is
also an active member of the African Union (AU).
Having good relations with South Africa's largest
trading partner is important for Mozambique. Brutal
expulsions in South Africa of Mozambicans illegally
staying in the country have at times been a strain on
After Mozambique's independence in 1975, the next
state of war prevailed between the new nation and the
South African apartheid regime, especially when South
Africa became the main backer of the Renamogerillan in
the early 1980s (see Modern history). When Nelson
Mandela was elected President of South Africa in 1994,
relations improved, and they were further strengthened
by the marriage between Mandela and Graša Machel, widow
of Mozambique's former President Samora Machel. Today,
Mozambique collaborates with, among others, South Africa
to fight pirates who hijack offshore vessels.
Mozambique has traditionally had close relationships
with Zimbabwe and Angola. The relationship with Malawi
was tense when the regime there supported the
Renamogerillan until 1977. Thereafter relations
improved. However, in the early 2010s, the countries
were involved in a dispute over Malawi's right to use
the Zambezi River, which runs through Mozambique, as a
transport link for vessels en route to Malawi.
Portugal has cultural exchange and trade with
Mozambique and also invests in the country. China has
also become a major investor and trading partner during
the 2000s. Other major investors with whom Mozambique
cultivated good relations are India, Brazil and Japan.
The exchange with Russia is still modest so far, but
the Russian oil company Rosneft has shown interest in
joining and extracting gas deposits in northern
FACTS - DEFENSE
10,000 men (2017)
The air Force
1,000 men (2017)
200 men (2017)
Military expenditure's share of GDP
0.8 percent (2017)
Military spending's share of the state budget
2.5 percent (2017)
The Dhlakama election appeal is rejected
The Supreme Court rejects Dhlakama's appeal of the election result and
declares that Lungu won the election.
Abortion is legalized
Parliament adopts a law that makes it legal to undergo abortion until the
twelfth week. When it comes to a pregnancy as a result of rape or where the
mother's life is in danger, the time is extended to 16 weeks. The new law is
awakened by organizations that fight for women's rights. Previously, abortion
was prohibited, and illegal abortions have been a common cause of death.
Nacala Airport is inaugurated
A new international airport is inaugurated in the city of Nacala in the north
of the country. The airport will be used for coal exports.
The President reaches out to Dhlakama
President Guebuza extends an olive branch to Dhlakama by approving a law that
guarantees the opposition leader special status with his own official residence,
office and staff. Dhlakama rejects the offer and says he will not be bribed.
Dhlakama calls for joint government
Dhlakama claims that Frelimo won by cheating and demands that Frelimo and
Renamo form a joint "transitional government".
Setback for Frelimo
At the same time as the presidential election, parliamentary elections are
held. Frelimo retains its majority but declines sharply and loses almost 50
seats while Renamo and MDM win terrain.
55-year-old Nyusi is elected president
The 55-year-old Nyusi was a relatively unknown politician prior to his
candidacy for the post. He had trained as an engineer in the Czech Republic and
the UK and started his career in the state railway company. In 2008, he had been
appointed by Guebuza as Minister of Defense. He is the first president who did
not participate in the war for independence from Portugal (see Modern History)
and the first who does not come from the southern part of the country. Nyusi has
promised to continue the policy of his representative.
Nyusi's profit is accused of cheating
Renamo claims that Nyusi's predicted profit is due to cheating and claims
that it is actually Dhlakama who is the winner. MDM also talks about electoral
fraud and says the party will appeal the result. The regional cooperation
organization SADC claims that some irregularities have occurred, but believes
that this has not affected the result. By and large, the election is considered
free and fair.
Success for Renamo in the election
After all, the election is a setback for Frelimo and a success for Renamo.
Dhlakama now managed to double its voting share compared to the 2009 election,
while Nyusi's figures turned pale against representative Guzman's victory with
75 percent of the vote in 2009.
Violent during election campaign
Some violence occurs during the campaign for the presidential and
parliamentary elections on October 15. Militant Freelim supporters are
reportedly giving up on political opponents without police intervention.
Frelimo's candidate Filipe Nyusi wins 57 percent of the vote. His main
challenger, Renamo's leader Afonso Dhlakama, gets close to 37 percent. In third
place is Daviz Simango from Mozambique's Democratic Movement (MDM). He gets just
over 6 percent.
Renamo's soldiers move to the national army
The agreement includes the integration of Renamo's soldiers into the national
army, which will be under international surveillance. The Renamos soldiers must
also surrender their weapons. Anyone who committed a crime during the conflict
should receive amnesty. According to the agreement, a continuing dialogue will
be held on economic issues, such as how the country's natural resources should
be distributed so that the opposition will gain control of them.
The peace agreement will end the fighting
The peace treaty will hopefully end almost two years of low-intensity mutual
fighting. There are no official figures on how many deaths were required during
the conflict, but human rights activists estimate the number of those killed to
more than 100.
New peace agreement is initiated
The government and Renamo conclude a peace agreement and include a ceasefire.
Renamol leader Afonso Dhlakama leaves the jungle and signs the agreement in
Maputo himself. He also says he plans to run in the October presidential
Renamos spokesman grips
Renamo spokesman Antonio Muchunga is arrested for leaving the presidential
palace where he participated in peace talks with the government. Muchunga is
accused of encouraging violence in his capacity as spokesman for the rebels.
The president rejects bill
President Guebuza vetoes the proposed law on bonus increases and asks
Parliament to come up with a new proposal.
The people are protesting against the president's benefits
A demonstration is being held in the capital Maputo in protest of proposed
increases in bonuses and other benefits to the President and Members of
Parliament. The protests are aimed primarily at the proposal that the president,
when he resigns in the fall, should receive a "reintegration allowance" of the
equivalent of ten annual salaries in addition to his pension. In addition, the
President and his family will receive free airline tickets in the first class
when they want to vacation.
4 police officers are killed in attack
Four policemen are killed and five injured in an attack on a Sofala province
police station. Renamo is suspected to be behind the deed.
Filipe Nyusi is elected candidate
Frelimo appoints Defense Minister Filipe Nyusi as the party's candidate in
the October presidential election. Nyussi is said to be close to outgoing
President Armando Guebuza.
Parliament votes for Renamo's legislative proposals
At the end of the month, a united parliament votes for a new electoral law,
which was tabled on a proposal from Renamo. Among other things, it means that
electoral committees at the provincial, district and city levels should have 15
members, three of whom will come from Frelimo, two from Renamo, one from MDM and
nine from civil society.
The government and Renamo resume their dialogue on a solution to the
conflict. Representatives for each side meet for the first time in three months
and begin negotiating the terms for continued calls. Renamo states a few days
later that the party, despite previous boycott threats, will stand in the
elections scheduled for October.